Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Low carrier density epitaxial graphene devices on SiC



Yanfei Yang, Lung-I Huang, Yasuhiro Fukuyama, Fan-Hung Liu, Mariano Real, Paola Barbara, Chi-Te Liang, David B. Newell, Randolph Elmquist


Monolayer epitaxial graphene grown on a hexagonal silicon carbide (SiC) substrate is typically found to be heavily n-doped (10e13 cm-2) and in most devices made with the as-grown epitaxial graphene the quantized Hall resistance plateau with Landau level filling factor nu=2 occurs at extremely high magnetic fields. We demonstrate a simple and clean fabrication process that produces high-quality devices based on epitaxial graphene with carrier densities in the range of 10e1010e11 cm-2 and highly developed nu=2 quantized Hall resistance plateaus for magnetic fields of less than 2 T. The low carrier density is attributed to p-type molecular doping by HNO3, and normal n-type characteristics can be restored by annealing the samples in Ar at temperatures as low as 175 °C.


Graphene, quantum Hall effect, nanotechnology, molecular doping


Yang, Y. , Huang, L. , Fukuyama, Y. , Liu, F. , Real, M. , Barbara, P. , Liang, C. , Newell, D. and Elmquist, R. (2014), Low carrier density epitaxial graphene devices on SiC, Small, [online], (Accessed June 20, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created May 31, 2014, Updated October 12, 2021