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Long-term comparison of caesium fountain primary frequency standards



Thomas E. Parker


There are currently nine caesium fountain primary frequency standards regularly reporting calibrations of International Atomic Time to the Bureau International des Poids et Measures (BIPM). An investigation has been carried out using data from the BIPM publication Circular T to evaluate the frequency differences among these standards and to determine whether these offsets are consistent with the stated uncertainties. The results of this investigation show that the standards agree well with each other. An overall estimate of the caesium frequency is made using the weighted mean of all the fountains.


atomic, caesium, fountain, frequency, standard


Parker, T. (2009), Long-term comparison of caesium fountain primary frequency standards, Metrologia, [online], (Accessed May 29, 2024)


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Created December 7, 2009, Updated February 19, 2017