Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Liquid Biofuels: Fluid Properties to Optimize Feedstock Selection, Processing, Refining/Blending, Storage/Trasnportation, and Combustion



George G. Anitescu, Thomas J. Bruno


As the availability of petroleum based liquid fuels is becoming increasingly problematic, alternative renewable biofuels attract growing R&D and industry interest. The focus is to produce fuels with desired properties in both technically and economically attractive ways to support sustainability and the environment. While abundant, the variety of biomass feedstocks for renewable fuel production brings a great deal of incompatibility of various fuels with wide ranges of properties and the combustion engines. A consistent theme is that better knowledge of fuel properties would lead to better designs and shorter development times of everything from fuel production facilities to emissions control systems. Thermophysical properties of biofuels are required to efficiently design the processes involved in their production, distribution, and utilization. On the other hand, these properties are also needed to develop and validate physicochemical models, the tools employed in process design, product development, or academic research. To date, the connection between the expertise in fluid properties and an integrating knowledge of where and how these properties are employed has not been adequately developed. Accordingly, the main goal of this review is to unite and set out the potential for synergy between all of the essential steps of fuel production and applications, from feedstock selection to the end use in transportation and power generation. An integrating approach on a broad scale is helpful for the increasing number of fuel researchers, process engineers, entrepreneurs, and end-users. This review discusses the main driving forces which are likely to encourage further development and move biofuel technologies from promising ideas to competitive solutions.
Energy and Fuels


biofuels, biomass feedstocks, biofuel processing, fluid properties, biofuel combustion, renewable fuels


Anitescu, G. and Bruno, T. (2012), Liquid Biofuels: Fluid Properties to Optimize Feedstock Selection, Processing, Refining/Blending, Storage/Trasnportation, and Combustion, Energy and Fuels, [online], (Accessed April 18, 2024)
Created January 22, 2012, Updated October 12, 2021