Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Lateral Magnetically Modulated Multilayers by Combining Ion Implantation and Lithography



Enric Menendez, Hiwa Modarresi, Claire Petermann, Josep Nogues, Neus Domingo, Haoliang Liu, Brian Kirby, Amir Syed Mohd, Zahir Salhi, Earl Babcock, Stefan Mattauch, Chris Van Haesendonck, Andre Vantomme, Kristiaan Temst


The combination of lithography and ion implantation is demonstrated to be a suitable method to prepare lateral multilayers. A laterally, compositionally and magnetically, modulated microscale patter consisting of alternating C (1.6υm-wide) and Co-CoO (2.4υm-wide) lines has been obtained by oxygen ion implantation into a lithographically-masked Au-sandwiched Co thin film. Magnetoresistance along the lines (i.e., current and applied magnetic field are parallel to the lines) reveals an effective positive giant magnetoresistance (GMR)behavior at room temperature. Conversely, anisotropic magnetoresistance and GMR contributions are distinguished at low temperature (i.e., 10 K) since the O-implanted areas become exchange-coupled. This planar GMR is ascribed to the high density of 180 ° domain walls at the Co/Co-CoO interfaces. The versatility, in terms of pattern size, morphology and composition adjustment, of this method offers a unique route to fabricate planar systems for, among others, spintronics research and applications.


polarized neutron reflectometry, magnetic multilayers


Menendez, E. , Modarresi, H. , Petermann, C. , Nogues, J. , Domingo, N. , Liu, H. , Kirby, B. , Mohd, A. , Salhi, Z. , Babcock, E. , Mattauch, S. , Haesendonck, C. , Vantomme, A. and Temst, K. (2017), Lateral Magnetically Modulated Multilayers by Combining Ion Implantation and Lithography, Small, [online], (Accessed June 21, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created February 28, 2017, Updated October 12, 2021