Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Josephson Junctions for Metrology Applications



Samuel P. Benz


The Josephson effect has revolutionized voltage metrology [1-5] and, together with the quantum Hall effect for resistance and atomic clocks for time and frequency, has enabled measurement standards based on quantum effects. Quantum standards produce intrinsically accurate values that enable repeatable precision measurements in any laboratory using comparable devices, systems and measurement techniques. Quantum standards are inherently different from non- quantum, “artifact” standards, whose values depend on environmental conditions. The success of quantum standards has lead the international community to redefine the international system of units and how measurement uncertainty is assigned via fundamental constants. [6-8] In this chapter, I will discuss the features and characteristics of dc and ac quantum voltage standards, the state-of-the-art technology of devices, circuits and instrumentation for voltage standard systems, and how they are presently applied to voltage and temperature metrology. Throughout, I will indicate how appropriate measurement techniques are required to minimize the systematic errors and realize measurements that approach quantum-accuracy.
Fundamentals and Frontiers of the Josephson Effect
Publisher Info
Springer Series in Materials Science, New York, NY


Josephson junction, voltage standard


Benz, S. (2019), Josephson Junctions for Metrology Applications, Fundamentals and Frontiers of the Josephson Effect, Springer Series in Materials Science, New York, NY, [online], (Accessed July 18, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created August 30, 2019, Updated September 23, 2019