With the growing interest in the deployment of massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems and millimeter wave technology for fifth generation (5G) wireless systems, the computation power to the total power consumption ratio is expected to increase rapidly due to high data traffic processing at the baseband unit. Therefore in this paper, a joint optimization problem of computation and communication power is formulated for multi-user massive MIMO systems with partially-connected structures of radio frequency (RF) transmission systems. When the computation power is considered for massiv MIMO systems, the results of this paper reveal that the energy efficiency of massive MIMO systems decreases with increasing the number of antennas and RF chains, which is contrary with the conventional energy efficiency analysis results of massive MIMO systems, i.e., only communication power is considered. To optimize the energy efficiency of multi-user massive MIMO systems, an upper bound on energy efficiency is derived. Considering the constraints on partially-connected structures, a sub-optimal solution consisting of baseband and RF precoding matrices is proposed to approach the upper bound on energy efficiency of multi-user massive MIMO systems. Furthermore, an oPtimized Hybrid precOding with computation and commuNication powEr (PHONE) algorithm is developed to realize the joint optimization of computation and communication power. Simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithm improves energy and cost efficiencies and the maximum power saving is achieved by 76.59% for multi-user massive MIMO systems with partially-connected structures.
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Millimeter wave, massive MIMO, energy efficiency, hybrid precoding, partially-connected structure, computation power