In magnetic multilayers, in which ferromagnetic layers are separated by non-magnetic spacer layers, the magnetizations are coupled by interactions across the spacer layer. One type of coupling, bilinear exchange coupling, originates from the quantum well states set up by the spin dependent reflection of electrons from the interfaces between the layers. Another type of coupling, biquadratic coupling, originates from frustration induced by defects in the structures. Over the past decade and a half, there has been a great deal of research toward understanding such coupling. This chapter presents physical models for the coupling, discusses experimental measurements of the coupling, and compares the results of the measurements with predictions of the models.
Interlayer Exchange Coupling, Ultrathin Magnetic Structures III, Springer-Verlag, New York, NY, [online], https://tsapps.nist.gov/publication/get_pdf.cfm?pub_id=620544
(Accessed November 30, 2023)