Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy measurements of high-efficiency perovskite solar cells



Ganga Neupane, Behrang Hamadani


Frequency domain characterization has long served as an important method for the examination of diverse kinetic processes that occur in solar cells. In this study, we have investigated the dynamic response of high-efficiency perovskite solar cells utilizing ultralow intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS). Distinctive IMPS attributes were only detected as a result of this low-intensity modulation, and their evolution under light and voltage bias was investigated in detail. We generally observed only two arcs in the Q-plane plots and attributed the smaller, low-frequency arc to trap-dominated charge transport in the device. Light and voltage bias dependent measurements confirm this attribution. An equivalent circuit model was used to better understand the features and trends of these measurements and validate our physical interpretation of the results. Additionally, we tracked the IMPS response of one of the cells over time and show that a slow degradation impacts the size and attributes of the low frequency arc. Finally, we find that changes in the IMPS response correlate closely with the current vs voltage characteristics of the devices.
ACS Energy Letters


Neupane, G. and Hamadani, B. (2024), Intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy measurements of high-efficiency perovskite solar cells, ACS Energy Letters, [online],, (Accessed June 20, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created January 2, 2024, Updated January 3, 2024