Instrumental Aspects of X-Ray Microbeams in the Range Above 1 keV
P Dhez, P Chevallier, Thomas B. Lucatorto, Charles Tarrio
X rays were discovered by Roentgen in 1895, just over 100 years ago. Early investigations by Roentgen himself indicated that prisms, lenses, and mirrors were seemingly ineffective for deflecting and focusing x rays. However, the magical ability to look through normally opaque materials with these mysterious rays soon created a host of important radiographic applications. Because of the absence of any imaging systems, early x-ray images were in the form of simple contact exposures or shadowgraphs.