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Input/Output Check Bugs Taxonomy: Injection Errors in Spotlight



Irena Bojanova, Carlos Eduardo Cardoso Galhardo, Sara Moshtari


In this work, we present an orthogonal classification of input/output check bugs, allowing precise structured descriptions of related software vulnerabilities. We utilize the Bugs Framework (BF) approach to define two language-independent classes that cover all possible kinds of data check bugs. We also identify all types of injection errors, as they are always directly caused by input/output data validation bugs. In BF each class is a taxonomic category of a weakness type defined by sets of operations, cause-->consequence relations, and attributes. A BF description of a bug or a weakness is an instance of a taxonomic BF class with one operation, one cause, one consequence, and their attributes. Any vulnerability then can be described as a chain of such instances and their consequence–cause transitions. With our newly developed Data Validation Bugs and Data Verification Bugs classes, we confirm that BF is a classification system that extends the Common Weakness Enumeration (CWE). It allows clear communication about software bugs and weaknesses, providing a structured way to precisely describe real-world vulnerabilities.
Proceedings Title
2021 IEEE 31st International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE)
Conference Dates
October 25-28, 2021
Conference Location
Wuhan, CN


Bug classification, bug taxonomy, software vulnerability, software weakness, input validation, input sanitization, input verification, injection.


Bojanova, I. , Cardoso Galhardo, C. and Moshtari, S. (2021), Input/Output Check Bugs Taxonomy: Injection Errors in Spotlight, 2021 IEEE 31st International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE), Wuhan, CN, [online],, (Accessed May 30, 2024)


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Created November 17, 2021, Updated November 29, 2022