Self-hardening calcium phosphate cements (CPC) have been the subject of considerable interest in biomaterials research, especially as a bone graft material. The first published CPCs consisted of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) or of TTCP and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD). The hardening time of these cements mixed with water as the liquid) is about 30 min, and hydroxyapatite forms as the major product. In recent years, additional CPCs that do not contain TTCP have been developed. All CPCs are highly biocompatible to soft and hard tissues as would be expected. For some applications; the cement paste is best delivered to the site by injection. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of lubricants and particle sizes of the cements on the injectability of the TTCP/DCPA, [alpha]-tricalcium phosphate ([alpha]-TCP)/calcium carbonate (CaCO3), and DCPA/CaCO3 cements. The results of the present study suggest that cement pastes with excellent injectability can be prepared by incorporating a lubricant such as CMC and by using a cement powder that contains sufficiently small particles. A highly injectable cement, e.g., through a 22 gauge needle, would generally have a longer hardening time, lower density, higher porosity, and lower physical strength.
Society for Biomaterials
bone graft material, calcium phosphates, carboxymethyl cellulose, cement, injection, lubricant
, Markovic, M.
and Takagi, S.
Injectable Calcium Phosphate Cements, Society for Biomaterials
(Accessed June 4, 2023)