Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.




Lisa Y. Choe, Chao Zhang, William E. Luecke, John L. Gross, Amit Varma


Finite-element (FE) analysis was used to compare the high-temperature responses of steel columns with two different stress–strain models: the Eurocode 3 model and the model proposed by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The comparisons were made in three different phases. The first phase compared the critical buckling temperatures predicted using forty-seven column data from five different laboratories. The slenderness ratios varied from 34 to 137, and the applied axial load was 20% to 60% of the room-temperature capacity. The results showed that the NIST model predicted the buckling temperature as or more accurately than the Eurocode 3 model for four of the five data sets. In the second phase, thirty unique FE models were developed to analyze the W8 × 35 and W14 × 53 column specimens with the slenderness ratio about 70. The column specimens were tested under steady-heating conditions with a target temperature in the range of 300°C to 600°C. The models were developed by combining the material model, temperature distributions in the specimens, and numerical scheme for non-linear analyses. Overall, the models with the NIST material properties and the measured temperature variations showed the results comparable to the test data. The deviations in the results from two different numerical approaches (modified Newton–Raphson vs. arc-length) were negligible. The Eurocode 3 model made conservative predictions on the behavior of the column specimens since its retained elastic moduli are smaller than those of the NIST model at elevated temperatures. In the third phase, the column curves calibrated using the NIST model was compared with those prescribed in the ANSI/AISC-360 Appendix 4. The calibrated curve significantly deviated from the current design equation with increasing temperature, especially for the slenderness ratio from 50 to 100
Fire Technology


Fire loading Elevated temperature Steel column Finite element method Stress–strain relationship Inelastic buckling Thermal strain


Choe, L. , Zhang, C. , Luecke, W. , Gross, J. and , A. (2016), INFLUENCE OF MATERIAL MODELS ON PREDICTING THE FIRE BEHAVIOR OF STEEL COLUMNS, Fire Technology, [online], (Accessed June 20, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created February 19, 2016, Updated June 2, 2021