Impurity driven Brownian motion of solitons in elon- gated Bose-Einstein Condensates
Ian B. Spielman, Lauren M. Aycock, Dina Genkina, Hsin I Lu, Hilary Hurst, Victor Galitski
Solitons, spatially-localized, propagating excitations resulting from an interplay be- tween nonlinearity and dispersion, are ubiquitous in physical systems from water channels1 and oceans2 to optical fibers3 and Bose- Einstein condensates (BECs)4. For the first time, we observed and controlled the Brownian motion5 of solitons. We launched lone, long-lived dark solitons in highly elongated 87Rb BECs and show that a dilute background of impurity atoms in a different internal state dramatically af- fects the soliton. With no impurities and in one- dimension (1-D), these solitons would have an infinite lifetime, a consequence of integrability?. The impurities scatter off the much larger soliton, contributing to its Brownian motion and decreasing its life- time. We describe the solitons diffusive behavior using a 1-D scattering theory of impurity atoms interacting with a soliton, giving diffusion coefficients consistent with experiment.
, Aycock, L.
, Genkina, D.
, , H.
, Hurst, H.
and Galitski, V.
Impurity driven Brownian motion of solitons in elon- gated Bose-Einstein Condensates, Nature Physics, [online], https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1615004114
(Accessed September 21, 2023)