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Impact of Coagulation Solvent Interactions on Porous Morphology Evolution in Cellulose Xerogels



Ashlee Aiello, Huong Giang Nguyen, Christopher Stafford, Jeremiah Woodcock


The role of coagulation solvent interactions on the pore formation mechanism in cellulose xerogels was investigated using single-step coagulation baths. A series of cellulose xerogels were fabricated from cotton yarns partially dissolved in ionic liquid (i.e., 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate) and then immersed in one of seven different coagulation baths. These samples were evaluated using N2 physisorption, inverse gas chromatography, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The regenerated cellulose orientation and resultant surface hydrophilicity was found to be dependent on solvent solubility interactions with an emphasis on polar interaction and dispersion force strength. More importantly, the xerogel specific surface area dramatically decreased from 100 m2g-1 to 0.278 m2g-1 with increasing hydrophilicity, confirming the importance of controlled cellulose orientation during the coagulation step of cellulose xerogel fabrication. These results have been used to propose a new pore formation mechanism in cellulose xerogels and provide recommendations towards the development of controllable porosity during xerogel fabrication.
Carbohydrate Polymers


xerogel, mesoporous, cellulose, biopolymer, ionic liquid, [EMIm][OAc]


Aiello, A. , Nguyen, H. , Stafford, C. and Woodcock, J. (2024), Impact of Coagulation Solvent Interactions on Porous Morphology Evolution in Cellulose Xerogels, Carbohydrate Polymers, [online],, (Accessed June 22, 2024)


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Created January 1, 2024, Updated November 13, 2023