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Identification and Plasma Diagnostics Study of Extreme Ultraviolet Transitions in Highly Charged Yttrium



Roshani Silwal, Endre Takacs, Joan M. Dreiling, John D. Gillaspy, Yuri Ralchenko


Extreme-ultraviolet spectra of the L-shell ions of highly charged yttrium Y26+ - Y36+ were observed in the electron beam ion trap of the National Institute of Standards and Technology using a flat-field grazing-incidence spectrometer in the wavelength range of 4 nm to 20 nm. The electron beam energy was systematically varied from 2.3 keV to 6.0 keV to selectively produce different ionization stages. Fifty nine spectral lines corresponding to ∆n=0 transitions within the n=2 and n=3 states have been identified using detailed collisional-radiative (CR) modeling of the non-Maxwellian plasma. The uncertainties of the wavelength determinations ranged between 0.0003 nm and 0.0019 nm. Li-like resonance lines, 2s - 2p1/2 and 2s - 2p3/2 and the Na-like D lines, 3s- 3p1/2 and 3s - 3p3/2 have been measured and compared with previous measurements and calculations. Forbidden magnetic dipole (M1) transitions were identified and analyzed for their potential applicability in plasma diagnostics using large-scale CR calculations including approximately 1.5 million transitions. Several line ratios were found to show strong dependence on electron density and hence may be implemented in the diagnostics of hot plasmas, in particular, in fusion devices.


highly charged ions, yttrium, spectroscopy, extreme ultraviolet, Li-like, Na-like, magnetic dipole, plasma diagnostics, electron beam ion trap, non-Maxwellian plasma


Silwal, R. , Takacs, E. , Dreiling, J. , Gillaspy, J. and Ralchenko, Y. (2019), Identification and Plasma Diagnostics Study of Extreme Ultraviolet Transitions in Highly Charged Yttrium, Atoms, [online], (Accessed June 23, 2024)


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Created September 17, 2019, Updated October 12, 2021