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High-Temperature, Tensile, Constitutive Data for World Trade Center Steels



William E. Luecke, Stephen W. Banovic, Joseph D. McColskey


This paper reports high-temperature tensile constitutive data for nine steels recovered from the fire and impact floors of the World Trade Center. Microstructurally, the nine steels represent typical structural steels from the 1970s. It reports the true stress-strain behavior as a function of temperature, (20 < T > 650) C and quasistatic strain rates, ( < 1 x 10-3 1/s). A simple, phenomenological work-hardening model with six parameters is capable of predicting the true-stress-strain behavior to within 50 MPa. The elevated temperature strain-rate-sensitivities, m, are similar to other structural steels. At temperatures above 550 C the retained strength of the steels lies below the Eurocode 3 recommended value.
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering


steel, strain rate, tensile, World Trade Center


Luecke, W. , Banovic, S. and McColskey, J. (2008), High-Temperature, Tensile, Constitutive Data for World Trade Center Steels, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering (Accessed May 29, 2024)


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Created October 16, 2008