Joshua B. Martin, Terry M. Tritt, Winnie K. Wong-Ng, Ctirad Uher
We present an overview of the challenges and practices of thermoelectric metrology at high temperature (300 K-1300 K). The Seebeck coefficient, when combined with thermal and electrical conductivity, is a useful property measurement for evaluating the potential performance of novel thermoelectric materials. However, there is some question as to which measurement technique(s) provides the most accurate determination of the Seebeck coefficient at high temperature. This has led to the implementation of inadequate measurement techniques, especially at high temperature where non-standard practices have complicated the confirmation of reported high ZT materials. To ensure meaningful interlaboratory comparison of data, thermoelectric measurements must be reliable, accurate, and consistent. This article will summarize and compare the relevant measurement techniques and apparatus designs required to effectively manage uncertainty, while also providing a reference resource of previous advances in high temperature thermoelectric metrology.