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Hierarchical, grid-aware, and economically optimal coordination of distributed energy resources in realistic distribution systems



DJ Anand, Mads Almassalkhi, Sarnaduti Brahma, Nawaf Nazir, Hamid Ossareh, Pavan Racherla, Soumya Kundu, Sai Pushpak Nandanoori, Thiagarajan Ramachandran, Ankit Singhal, Dennice Gayme, Chengda Ji, Enrique Mallada, Yue Shen, Pengcheng You


Forward-looking renewable portfolio standards will lead to extreme levels of variable solar PV in electric distribution systems, which makes reliability more challenging to maintain for distribution system operators (DSOs). To facilitate reliability under extreme levels of solar PV, flexibility from distributed energy resources (DERs), including smart, connected appliances and PV inverters, represents responsive grid resources that can support the DSO in actively managing their networks. Furthermore, flexibility can also optimize system operations with respect to economic signals from wholesale energy and ancillary service markets. To enable flexible demand and ensure reliable and economical operation of distribution systems, we present a novel hierarchical scheme that actively controls behind-the-meter DERs to reliably manage each unbalanced distribution feeder and 10 exploits the available flexibility to economically optimize the entire network. Each layer of the scheme 11 employs advanced optimization methods at different timescales to ensure that the system operates 12 within both grid and device limits. The hierarchy is validated in a large-scale realistic simulation 13 based on data from the industry. Simulation results show that coordination of flexibility improves 14 both system reliability and economics, and enables greater penetration of solar PV. Discussion is also 15 provided on the practical viability of the required communications and controls to implement the 16 presented scheme within a large DSO.
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems


distributed energy resources, smart loads, flexibility, distribution system operator, distribution network, optimal power flow, control, large scale, solar PV


Anand, D. , Almassalkhi, M. , Brahma, S. , Nazir, N. , Ossareh, H. , Racherla, P. , Kundu, S. , Nandanoori, S. , Ramachandran, T. , Singhal, A. , Gayme, D. , Ji, C. , Mallada, E. , Shen, Y. and You, P. (2020), Hierarchical, grid-aware, and economically optimal coordination of distributed energy resources in realistic distribution systems, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, [online], (Accessed May 24, 2024)


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Created December 9, 2020, Updated October 23, 2023