Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Handbook of Radiant Heating and Cooling



J M. Palmer, K S. Chapman, R D. Watson


These four chapters are part of a larger book on radiant heating and cooling. The goal of these chapters is to explain thermal comfort, how it is modeled, and how to calculate it. The first chapter explains the variables of thermal comfort. The second chapter describes briefly studies and models have been made in an effort to model the complex nature of thermal comfort. The third chapter explains the mean radiant temperature, which measures the radiant energy exchange in a room. When used in conjunction with the air temperature, the mean radiant temperature gives a more realistic picture of the thermal comfort in a room. Unfortunately, due to the complex nature of radiant heat transfer, the mean radiant temperature is easy to define and understand conceptually but difficult to measure and calculate. The fourth chapter discusses the operative temperature, which relates the air and mean radiant temperatures. It is the temperature the occupant actually feels due to the surrounding air and radiant energy exchange.
Handbook of Radiant Heating and Cooling


building technology, mean radiant temperature, thermal comfort


Palmer, J. , Chapman, K. and Watson, R. (2017), Handbook of Radiant Heating and Cooling, Handbook of Radiant Heating and Cooling (Accessed March 5, 2024)
Created February 19, 2017