Growth, characterization, and applications of self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots
Richard P. Mirin, A C. Gossard
Interest in quantum dots has reached new highs in recent years because of the ease of fabricating uniform arrays in situ via the transformation of a highly strained heteroepitaxial layer from a two-dimensional film to three-dimensional islands. These three-dimensional islands are defect-free and optically active, and the interfaces with the surrounding matrix are formed in situ and are extremely clean. Furthermore, these islands are small enough to laterally confine electrons and holes in discrete states, and thus these islands are referred to as quantum dots. InAs has a 7.2% lattice-mismatch to GaAs, and only abut 1.8 monolayers of InAs will grow in a two-dimensional manner on GaAs. Beyond this thickness, the film breaks apart into small, coherently-strained islands. Lateral quantum confinement has been observed in these InAs islands. Quantum dot lasers that use layers of InAs quantum dots have already demonstrated some of the predicted improvements in performance such as high characteristic temperatue and alrge differential gain.
and Gossard, A.
Growth, characterization, and applications of self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, MA, [online], https://tsapps.nist.gov/publication/get_pdf.cfm?pub_id=21223
(Accessed December 2, 2023)