Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Graphene Quantum Hall Effect Parallel Resistance Arrays



Alireza Panna, I Fan Hu, Mattias Kruskopf, Dinesh K. Patel, Dean G. Jarrett, Chieh-I Liu, Shamith Payagala, Dipanjan Saha, Albert Rigosi, David B. Newell, Chi-Te Liang, Randolph Elmquist


As first recognized in 2010, epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001) provides a platform for quantized Hall resistance (QHR) metrology unmatched by other 2D structures and materials. Here we report graphene parallel QHR arrays, with metrologically precise quantization near 1000 ohms. These arrays have tunable carrier densities, owing to uniform epitaxial growth and chemical functionalization, allowing quantization at the robust nu = 2 filling factor in two devices at relative precision better than 10-8. Broad tuneability of the carrier density also enables investigation of the nu = 6 plateau. Optimized networks of QHR devices described in this work use recently developed methods to suppress ohmic contact resistance error using branched contacts and avoid crossover leakage with interconnections that are superconducting for quantizing magnetic fields up to 13.5 T. Our work enables access to a wide range of precisely quantized resistance values in arrays of arbitrary network geometry.
Physical Review B


Quantum Hall effect, Quantized Hall resistance array, carrier density, functionalization, mobility, graphene, epitaxial, precision measurement, reciprocity


Panna, A. , Hu, I. , Kruskopf, M. , Patel, D. , Jarrett, D. , Liu, C. , Payagala, S. , Saha, D. , Rigosi, A. , Newell, D. , Liang, C. and Elmquist, R. (2021), Graphene Quantum Hall Effect Parallel Resistance Arrays, Physical Review B, [online], (Accessed July 18, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created February 1, 2021, Updated April 8, 2022