Generalized auto-balanced Ramsey spectroscopy of clock transitions
V. I. Yudin, A. V. Taichenachev, M. Y. Basalaev, T. Zanon-Willette, James Wesley Y. Pollock, Moshe Shuker, Elizabeth A. Donley, John E. Kitching
We develop the theory for generalised auto-balanced Ramsey spectroscopy (GABRS), which allows probe-field-induced shifts in atomic clocks to be eliminated. This universal two-loop method, apart from the clock frequency omega, requires the use of an additional (concomitant) variable parameter xi, which is related to the first and/or second Ramsey pulses tau1 and tau2. In addition, it is necessary to use Ramsey sequences with two different dark times T1 and T2. The operation of GABRS consists of the correlated stabilisation of both variable parameters: omega and xi. It is analytically shown that the GABRS method always leads to zero field-induced shift of the stabilized frequency omega in an atomic clock, delta_clock = 0, independent of relaxation processes (including decoherence) and different non-idealities of the interrogation procedure. Such robustness is unprecedented for Ramsey spectroscopy, and it is a direct consequence of the phase-jump technique used to build the error signal in Ramsey spectroscopy. We consider several variants of GABRS with the use of different concomitant parameters xi. It is found that the most optimal and universal variant is based on the frequency-step technique, when the concomitant parameter xi is equal to the varied additional frequency step Δ_step during both Ramsey pulses tau1 and tau2. Some variants of GABRS can also be applied for atomic clocks using CPT-based Ramsey spectroscopy of the two-photon dark resonance.
, Taichenachev, A.
, Basalaev, M.
, Zanon-Willette, T.
, Y., J.
, Shuker, M.
, Donley, E.
and Kitching, J.
Generalized auto-balanced Ramsey spectroscopy of clock transitions, Physical Review A, [online], https://tsapps.nist.gov/publication/get_pdf.cfm?pub_id=924878
(Accessed July 30, 2021)