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Forward and Inverse design of high $T_C$ superconductors with DFT and deep learning



Daniel Wines, Kevin Garrity, Tian Xie, Kamal Choudhary


We developed a multi-step workflow for the discovery of next-generation conventional superconductors. 1) We started with a Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer (BCS) inspired pre-screening of 55000 materials in the JARVIS-DFT database resulting in 1736 materials with high Debye temperature and electronic density of states at the Fermi-level. 2) Then, we performed density functional theory (DFT) based electron-phonon coupling calculations for 1058 materials to establish a systematic database of superconducting properties. 3) Further, we applied forward deep-learning (DL) using atomistic line graph neural network (ALIGNN) models to predict properties faster than direct first-principles computations. Notably, we find that by predicting the Eliashberg function as an intermediate quantity, we can improve the model performance versus a direct DL prediction of $T_C$. Finally, 4) we used an inverse deep-learning method with a crystal diffusion variational autoencoder (CDVAE) model to generate thousands of new superconductors with high chemical and structural diversity. 5) We screened these CDVAE-generated structures using ALIGNN to identify candidates that are stable with high $T_C$. 6) We verified the top superconducting candidates with DFT.
Proceedings Title
ML4Materials from Molecules to Materials (Virtual)
Conference Dates
May 4, 2023
Conference Location
Kigali , RW
Conference Title


Wines, D. , Garrity, K. , Xie, T. and Choudhary, K. (2023), Forward and Inverse design of high $T_C$ superconductors with DFT and deep learning, ML4Materials from Molecules to Materials (Virtual), Kigali , RW, [online], (Accessed June 17, 2024)


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Created April 21, 2023, Updated September 25, 2023