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Force modeling for hybrid manufacturing



Michael Gomez, Jarred C. Heigel, Tony Schmitz


This paper investigates the cutting forces during the machining of additively manufactured metals. Two pairs of workpieces were produced by powder bed direct metal selective laser sintering. These workpieces included a 17-4 stainless steel substrate (wrought) and a 17-4 stainless steel additively manufactured rib. After manufacture, one pair was annealed and the other was maintained in the as-produced state. Each was then machined to identify a cutting force model for the various material states. An instantaneous force, nonlinear optimization model was applied to determine the mechanistic cutting force coefficients. Due to the nonlinear dependence on the commanded feed per tooth, a power law fit was applied to the chip thickness-dependent cutting force coefficients. It was determined that there are only minor differences in the cutting force coefficients between the various material states. The strongest effect was annealing, which increased the mean coefficients in almost all cases, particularly for the additively manufactured bulk material.
Proceedings Title
Procedia Manufacturing
Conference Dates
June 18-22, 2018
Conference Location
College Station, TX, US
Conference Title
46th SME North American Manufacturing Research Conference, NAMRC 46


hybrid manufacturing, additive manufacturing, milling, force


Gomez, M. , Heigel, J. and Schmitz, T. (2018), Force modeling for hybrid manufacturing, Procedia Manufacturing, College Station, TX, US, [online], (Accessed April 12, 2024)
Created June 21, 2018, Updated April 19, 2022