Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Fluid Dispensing and Dispersion



Jiann C. Yang, David R. Keyser


This paper is a condensed version of a chapter in the forthcoming Next Generation Program (NGP) final report edited by the authors. It summarizes the research conducted during the NGP program on fluid dispensing and dispersion within aircraft engine nacelles by various principal investigators, including the authors. Fire-suppression systems for protecting aircraft engines typically consist of a suppressant storage bottle(s), a piping system connecting the bottle(s) to the discharge port(s), and the discharge nozzle(s). In some cases, nozzles are not used; the fluid simply discharges from the pipe-end. Fluid dispensing addresses the multi-component, two-phase flow of the fire suppressant through the piping before it is discharged. Fluid dispensing includes the initial conditions for agent discharge that affect the subsequent dispersion of the suppressant. The fluid dispensing aspects will be discussed in the Fluid Storage and Fluid Transport through Piping sections. The aspects of fluid storage are related to the determination of the thermodynamic state of the fluid in the bottle and the sizing of the bottle required to accommodate sufficient agent required for fire suppression without compromising the bottle's structural integrity. The discussion of fluid transport through piping describes the flow of fire suppressant through various piping configurations (straight pipes, bends, tees, etc.). The two-phase computer code was derived from a code widely used in the nuclear industries. This program was benchmarked against transient experimental data available in the literature as well as experiments conducted in the NGP.
Proceedings Title
Halon Options Technical Working Conference
Conference Dates
May 16-18, 2006
Conference Location
Albuquerque, NM
Conference Title
16th Proceedings. HOTWC 2006


halon alternatives, halons, halon 1301, fire suppression, aircraft engines, nacelle engines, dispersions, fluids, pipes, storage, experiments, fire tests, simulations, low temperature


Yang, J. and Keyser, D. (2006), Fluid Dispensing and Dispersion, Halon Options Technical Working Conference, Albuquerque, NM, [online], (Accessed May 25, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created May 16, 2006, Updated February 19, 2017