Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Flow Characterization of Flickering Methane/Air Diffusion Flames Using Particle Image Velocimetry



G Papadopoulos, Rodney A. Bryant, William M. Pitts


Phase-resolved measurements of the velocity field in acoustically forced, flickering laminar co-flowing methane/air diffusion flames have been made. Identical flames have been studied extensively in the past in order to characterize the effects of the vortical structures responsible for the flicker on the flame structure, but the initial velocity perturbation and the velocity fields have not been reported previously. Phase-locked measurements of the instantaneous two-dimensional velocity field at ten phases within a full excitation cycle were made using particle image velocimetry. The velocity measurements were complemented by phase-resolved shadowgraphs recorded in the vicinity of the flame base. Measurements are reported for the two forcing conditions that have most often been studied for this burner. When integrated with the results of previous studies these measurements provide a clearer picture of the interactions between the buoyancy-induced vortical structures and the flame sheets, as well as understanding of the initial conditions required for realistic modeling of these flames.
Experiments in Fluids
No. 3


diffusion flames, flame structure, laminar flames, velocity distribution, velocity measurement, vortex strength


Papadopoulos, G. , Bryant, R. and Pitts, W. (2002), Flow Characterization of Flickering Methane/Air Diffusion Flames Using Particle Image Velocimetry, Experiments in Fluids, [online], (Accessed June 19, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created August 31, 2002, Updated October 12, 2021