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Flammable Refrigerant Safety



Gregory T. Linteris, Peter Sunderland


Most refrigerants currently in use have relatively high Global Warming Potential (GWP). For example, the GWPs of R-134a and R-410a are 1300 and 2088. Leaks to the atmosphere are common – typically about 10% of the total charge annually. This has motivated the adoption of low-GWP refrigerants, typically A2L halogens and A3 hydrocarbons. The primary impediment to their adoption is that they are flammable and, for halogenated compounds, their combustion products are highly toxic. This Topical Section of Science and Technology for the Built Environment consists of four manuscripts that address important aspects of refrigerant flammability.
Science and Technology for the Built Environment


Flammable refrigerants, burning velocity, odorants, refrigerant field joints


Linteris, G. and Sunderland, P. (2020), Flammable Refrigerant Safety, Science and Technology for the Built Environment, [online], (Accessed May 26, 2024)


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Created April 22, 2020, Updated September 26, 2023