First Order Sideband Pulling in Atomic Frequency Standards
Jon H. Shirley, Thomas P. Heavner, Steven R. Jefferts
Many high performance atomic frequency standards, including cesium fountains and most optical standards, operate with pulsed measurements, that is, an atomic sample is prepared for measurement, the measurement is made, and the process is repeated at fixed intervals. By introducing frequency modulation of the excitation coherent with the measurement cycle time, we have observed biases in the primary frequency standard NIST-F1 much larger than biases predicted by previous theories. We derive a theory of such biases for both Rabi and Ramsey excitation. We find agreement with the experimental measurements.
IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
, Heavner, T.
and Jefferts, S.
First Order Sideband Pulling in Atomic Frequency Standards, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, [online], https://tsapps.nist.gov/publication/get_pdf.cfm?pub_id=842503
(Accessed November 30, 2023)