Water sprinkler sprays (with relatively large droplet sizes) in residential and commercials structures are probably the most well known application of sprays in fire suppression. In more recent years, water mists (characterized by reduced droplet sizes, which may contain additives) have been considered as a replacement for halon 1301, the most common fire suppressant chemical aboard aircraft and ships, but banned as an ozone-depleting chemical by the Montreal protocol in 1987. Much research has focused on characterizing the liquid discharge from agent storage bottles, spray transport in various obstructed environments, agent suppression of liquid-fueled, spray-type fires, and determination of the effectiveness of various liquid and powdered chemicals (with respect to gaseous agents) to extinguish a flame in well-controlled experimental facilities. Research during the past two decades to characterize liquid and powdered sprays may find sprays appealing alternatives to environmentally harmful gaseous agents in the near future, if properly engineered.
Handbook of Atomization and Sprays: Theory and Applications