Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Fire as a Building Load



Richard W. Bukowski


The concept of designing buildings to resist loads is fundamental to the design and regulatory process. Fire has traditionally been addressed differently because fires are difficult to describe in the same way as other building loads. This paper proposes a way of adjusting generic design fires to the specifics of a building to result in a design load that is consistent with other design loads and to which safety factors can be applied. This capability is especially useful in addressing risk management and performance-based regulatory systems.


building codes, fire codes, performance codes, performance regulations


Bukowski, R. (2017), Fire as a Building Load, Interflam (Accessed June 21, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created February 19, 2017