Lightweighting materials (e.g., advanced high strength steels, aluminum alloys etc.) are increasingly being used by automotive companies as sheet metal components. However, accurate material models are needed for wider adoption. These constitutive material data are often developed by applying biaxial strain paths with cross-shaped (cruciform) specimens. Optimizing the design of specimens is a major goal in which finite element (FE) analysis can play a major role. However, verification of FE models is necessary. Calibrating models against uniaxial tensile tests is a logical first step. In the present study, reliable stress-strain data up to failure are developed by using digital image correlation (DIC) technique for strain measurement and X-ray techniques and/or force data for stress measurement. Such data are used to model the deformation behavior in uniaxial and biaxial tensile specimens. Model predictions of strains and displacements are compared with experimental data. The role of imperfections on necking behavior in FE modeling results of uniaxial tests is discussed. Computed results of deformation, strain profile, and von Mises plastic strain agree with measured values along critical paths in the cruciform specimens. Such a calibrated FE model can be used to obtain an optimum cruciform specimen design.
18th International ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming
April 15-17, 2015
uniaxial and biaxial tensile tests, finite element modeling, steel, cruciform.