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Finite-Element Modeling and Experimental Comparisons of the Effects of Deformable Ball Indenters on Rockwell B Hardness Tests

Published

Author(s)

Li Ma, Samuel R. Low III, Jun-Feng Song

Abstract

Significant differences occur in Rockwell B hardness (HRB) tests depending on whether the 1.588 mm diameter ball indenter that is used is made of steel and tungsten carbide (WC). It is important to study and assess the effect of different indenter materials on the HRB tests since the Rockwell hardness test method standards, published by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) - International and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards, now permit the use of either steel or tungsten carbine ball indenters. In this paper, finite element anlaysis (FEA) is used to simulate the HRB indentation process using steel, and WC ball indenters on the same test materials under the same testing conditions. The influence of the deformable steel and WC indenters on the HRB tests is analyzed by comparins their FEA results with those of a simulated non-deformable rigid indenter. The contact pressure, stress, strain and deformations of both the indenters and tested materials during the loading and unloading period are analyzed. The FEA simulation results show that the HRB difference between steel and WC ball indenters is about 0.4 HRB for 40 to 78 HRB levels, but increases to 0.56 HRB at 23 HRB level. The FEA simulation results agree with experimental HRB tests.
Citation
Journal of Testing and Evaluation
Volume
31
Issue
No. 6

Keywords

contact deformation, finite element, HRB, indentation, Rockwell hardness

Citation

Ma, L. , Low, S. and Song, J. (2003), Finite-Element Modeling and Experimental Comparisons of the Effects of Deformable Ball Indenters on Rockwell B Hardness Tests, Journal of Testing and Evaluation (Accessed April 16, 2024)
Created November 1, 2003, Updated February 17, 2017