Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Field Emission Energy Distribution (FEED)



John William Gadzuk, E. W. Plummer


The technique of measuring the energy distribution of electron which have been field emitted from a cold cathode is considered. The genral historical and introductory theory is presented. A survey of the experimental techniques and existing energy analyzers is given. Specific studies on clean metal surfaces in which work functions, band structure effects, surface states, thermal effects, adn many-body effects have been studied are review from both the experimental and theoretical points of view. Field emission energy distributions have been particularly valuable in studies of atoms chemisorbed on surfaces. Several theories of enhanced resonsnce tunneling due to chemisorbed atoms are discusses. Specific systems studies esperimenatlly are reviewed. Inelastic adsorbate enhanced tunneling is also treated.
Reviews of Modern Physics


Gadzuk, J. and Plummer, E. (1973), Field Emission Energy Distribution (FEED), Reviews of Modern Physics (Accessed April 13, 2024)
Created June 30, 1973, Updated October 12, 2021