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Fabrication of 3D Printed Hydroxyapatite Composite Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration



Yoontae Kim, Eun-Jin Lee, Albert Davydov, Stanislav Frakhtbeyen, Jonathan Seppala, Laurence Chow, Tagaki Shozo, Stella Alimperti


Additive biomanufacturing has been adapted in a wide variety of biomedical and tissue engineering applications, including orthopedics. The ability to print biocompatible, patient-specific geometries with controlled porosity, mechanical strength has made three-dimensional (3D) printing ideal for bone grafting. Herein, a 3D bio-compatible polymer/hydroxyapatite composite scaffold was printed using calcium phosphate cement (CPC) slurries at room temperature. The CPC slurries (bio-inks) were composed by a mixture of a solid phase that includes a mixture of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP; Ca4(PO4)2O) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA; CaHPO4), and a liquid phase that includes a Polyvinyl butyral (PVB) in Ethanol (EtOH) or Tetrahydrofuran (THF). The CPC slurries were successfully printed in sodium phosphate (Na2HPO4) bath, which performed as a hardening accelerator. The 3D printed scaffolds thoroughly demonstrated different geometry, microstructure, mechanical properties, and osteoconductivity. Overall, this proof-of-concept study provides a facile way to engineer transplantable biomimetic osteoscaffolds with determined properties, which support proper bone regeneration and mechanical support in different anatomic locations.
Biomedical Materials


3D printing, DCPA, TTCP, Polyvinyl butyral, scaffold, 3D culture, bone regeneration, osteogenesis, osteoblast


Kim, Y. , Lee, E. , Davydov, A. , Frakhtbeyen, S. , Seppala, J. , Chow, L. , Shozo, T. and Alimperti, S. (2021), Fabrication of 3D Printed Hydroxyapatite Composite Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration, Biomedical Materials, [online], (Accessed June 25, 2024)


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Created May 19, 2021, Updated October 12, 2021