Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

EXPPO: EXecution Performance Profiling and Optimization for CPS Co-simulation-as-a-Service



Yogesh Barve, Himanshu Neema, Zhuangwei Kang, Hongyang Sun, Aniruddha Gokhale, Thomas Roth


A co-simulation may comprise several heterogeneous federates with diverse spatial and temporal execution characteristics. In an iterative time-stepped simulation, a federation exhibits the Bulk Synchronous Parallel (BSP) computation paradigm in which all federates perform local operations and synchronize with their peers before proceeding to the next round of computation. In this context, the lowest performing (i.e., slowest) federate dictates the progression of the federation logical time. One challenge in co-simulation is performance profiling for individual federates and entire federations. The computational resource assignment to the federates can have a large impact on federation performance. Furthermore, a federation may comprise federates located on different physical machines as is the case for cloud and edge computing environments. As such, distributed profiling and resource assignment to the federation is a major challenge for operationalizing the co-simulation execution at scale. This paper presents the EXPPO methodology, which addresses these challenges by using execution performance profiling at each simulation execution step and for every federate in a federation. EXPPO uses profiling to learn performance models for each federate, and uses these models in its federation resource recommendation tool to solve an optimization problem that improves the execution performance of the co-simulation. Using an experimental testbed, the efficacy of EXPPO is validated to show the benefits of performance profiling and resource assignment in improving the execution runtimes of co-simulations while also minimizing the execution cost.
Proceedings Title
The 23rd International Symposium on Real-Time Distributed Computing
Conference Dates
May 19-21, 2020
Conference Location
Nashville, TN, US


cyber-physical systems, distributed simulation, latency, performance


Barve, Y. , Neema, H. , Kang, Z. , Sun, H. , Gokhale, A. and Roth, T. (2020), EXPPO: EXecution Performance Profiling and Optimization for CPS Co-simulation-as-a-Service, The 23rd International Symposium on Real-Time Distributed Computing, Nashville, TN, US, [online],, (Accessed June 18, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created June 9, 2020, Updated October 12, 2021