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Experimental Investigation of Residual Stress and its Impact on Machining in Hybrid Additive/Subtractive Manufacturing



Jarred C. Heigel, Thien Q. Phan, Jason Fox, Thomas H. Gnaupel-Herold


Hybrid Manufacturing leverages the advantages of both additive manufacturing (AM) with machining to create parts that have complex geometries, tight tolerances, and good surface finish. However, the residual stresses induced by both processes present a challenge. These high stresses can induce significant distortion that can damage the part during the additive process or lead to unanticipated distortion during the machining process. The current work investigates the impact of the residual stresses generated during the AM process on the part distortion during the subsequent machining operation. Powder bed fusion is used to create stainless steel cylinders and their geometries are measured before and after machining their outer diameter, allowing the resulting distortion to be calculated. The measured distortion is counter to what is expected from the distribution of the residual stress measurements made before the machining operation using neutron diffraction, suggesting that the machining imposes significant stresses that, in this case, counter-act the remaining stresses from the AM process and/or triggered a material phase change.
Proceedings Title
Proceedings of NAMRI/SME
Conference Dates
June 18-22, 2018
Conference Location
College Station, TX, US
Conference Title
46th SME North American Manufacturing Research Conference, NAMRC 46


Hybrid manufacturing, additive manufacturing, residual stress, distortion


Heigel, J. , Phan, T. , Fox, J. and Gnaupel-Herold, T. (2018), Experimental Investigation of Residual Stress and its Impact on Machining in Hybrid Additive/Subtractive Manufacturing, Proceedings of NAMRI/SME, College Station, TX, US, [online],, (Accessed May 29, 2024)


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Created June 21, 2018, Updated April 19, 2022