Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Examination of Sn Electrodeposit on a Substrate Not Forming Intermetallic



Maureen E. Williams, Kil-Won Moon, William J. Boettinger, Daniel Josell


Intermetallic compound (IMC) formation at the interface between the tin (Sn) plating and the copper (Cu) substrate of electronic components has been thought to produce compressive stress in Sn electrodeposits and cause the growth of Sn whiskers. To determine if the interfacial IMC is a requirement for whisker growth, bright Sn and a Sn-Cu alloy are electroplated on a tungsten (W) substrate that does not form interfacial IMC with the deposit. At room temperature Sn hillocks grew on pure Sn deposits and Sn whiskers grew from Sn-Cu alloy electrodeposits without an interfacial IMC between the deposits and the W substrates.
Journal of Electronic Materials


focused ion beam, interfacial intermetallic compound, Sn whiskers


Williams, M. , Moon, K. , Boettinger, W. and Josell, D. (2008), Examination of Sn Electrodeposit on a Substrate Not Forming Intermetallic, Journal of Electronic Materials (Accessed April 21, 2024)
Created October 16, 2008