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The Evolution of Time Measurement, Part 2 - Quartz Clocks



Michael A. Lombardi


A historical article about the origins and the development of quartz clocks and oscillators (Part II of a IV-part series). It describes the discovery of piezoelectricity, the development of the first quartz oscillators, how quartz oscillators were instrumental to the growth of the radio industry by becoming early standards for frequency measurements. It also covers the use of synthetic quartz, the limitations of quartz timekeeping, and the development of the quartz wristwatch.
IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Magazine


clocks, frequency, piezoelectricy, quartz, time


Lombardi, M. (2011), The Evolution of Time Measurement, Part 2 - Quartz Clocks, IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Magazine, [online], (Accessed April 16, 2024)
Created October 1, 2011, Updated February 19, 2017