The paper reviews the development of chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants, the implemented replacements of ozone-depleting fluids, other considered alternatives, and the prospect for next-generation refrigerants in response to climate change concerns. Convincing evidence suggests that any future refrigerants will have large molecules with high molar heat capacities resulting in a lower thermodynamic efficiency than that of the contemporary refrigerants. If refrigerant availability is not affected by regulatory measures, hydrofluorocarbon refrigerants should continue to dominate the market. Natural refrigerants will gain some market share in selected applications. The search for new and the refinement of mature technologies will continue to produce environmentally friendly solutions for the future.
Evolution of Refrigerant Application, International Congress on Refrigeration, Milano, IT, [online], https://tsapps.nist.gov/publication/get_pdf.cfm?pub_id=860786
(Accessed February 26, 2024)