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Evaluation of the FEMA P-695 Methodology for Quantification of Building Seismic Performance Factors



Charles Kircher, Gregory Deierlein, John Hooper, Helmut Krawinkler, Steve Mahin, Benson Shing, John Wallace


This work was an extension of work conducted under the ATC-63 Project, funded by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), which resulted in the publication of the FEMA P-695 report, Quantification of Building Seismic Performance Factors (FEMA 2009). The FEMA P-695 report outlines a procedural methodology for reliably quantifying seismic performance factors, including the response modification coefficient (R factor), the system overstrength factor (Ω_o), and the deflection amplification factor (Cd). While the ATC-63 Project included testing of the Methodology on selected systems (e.g., special and ordinary reinforced concrete moment frames and wood light-frame structural panel shear walls), the purpose of this NIST project was to expand the testing of the Methodology to additional seismic force-resisting systems. Beta testing was overseen by members of the original ATC-63 Project Team, but was conducted by working groups consisting of individuals who were not directly involved in the development of the Methodology. The following systems were tested as part of this work: (1) special and ordinary reinforced masonry shear walls; (2) special and ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls; (3) special steel concentrically braced frames and buckling-restrained braced frames; and (4) special steel moment frames. With certain exceptions, results confirmed the applicability of the Methodology for quantifying seismic performance factors and verified that currently approved seismic force-resisting systems generally meet the inherent safety against collapse intended by current seismic codes and standards.
Grant/Contract Reports (NISTGCR) - 10-917-8
Report Number


NEHRP Consultants Joint Venture, ATC, Response Modification, System Overstrength, Deflection Amplification


Kircher, C. , Deierlein, G. , Hooper, J. , Krawinkler, H. , Mahin, S. , Shing, B. and Wallace, J. (2010), Evaluation of the FEMA P-695 Methodology for Quantification of Building Seismic Performance Factors, Grant/Contract Reports (NISTGCR), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed April 14, 2024)
Created November 15, 2010, Updated February 19, 2017