Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Estimation of Q-factors and Resonant Factors

Published

Author(s)

Kevin Coakley, Jolene Splett, Michael D. Janezic, Raian K. Kaiser

Abstract

We estimate the quality factor Q and resonant frequency f0 of a microwave cavity based on resonance curve observations on an equally-spaced frequency grid. The observed resonance curve is the squared magnitude of an observed complex scattering parameter. We characterize the variance of the additive noise in the observed resonance curve parametrically. Based on this noise characterization, we estimate Q and f0 and other associated model parameters by the method of weighted least squares (WLS). Based on asymptotic statistical theory, we also estimate the one-sigma uncertainty of Q and f0. In a simulation study, the WLS method outperforms the 3-dB method and the Estin method. For real data, we show that the WLS method yields the most precise estimates. Given that the resonance curve is sampled at a fixed number of equally-spaced frequencies in the neighborhood of the resonant frequency, we determine the optimal frequency spacing in order to minimize the asymptotic standard deviation of the estimate of either Q and f0.
Citation
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Volume
51
Issue
3

Keywords

cavity, experimental design, microwave, noise characterization, optimal frequency spacing, quality factor, resonance curve, resonant frequency

Citation

Coakley, K. , Splett, J. , Janezic, M. and Kaiser, R. (2003), Estimation of Q-factors and Resonant Factors, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques (Accessed March 1, 2024)
Created February 28, 2003, Updated October 12, 2021