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Epitaxial graphene for quantum resistance metrology



Mattias Kruskopf, Randolph Elmquist


A new generation of graphene-based quantum Hall resistance standards promises high precision for the unit ohm under relaxed measurement conditions, enabling the use of compact measurement systems. To meet the requirements of metrological applications, national metrology institutes developed large-area monolayer graphene growth for uniform material properties and optimized device fabrication techniques. Precision measurements of the quantized Hall resistance showing the advantage of graphene over GaAs-based resistance standards demonstrate the remarkable achievements realized by the research community. This work provides an overview over the state-of-the-art technologies in this field.


epitaxial graphene, quantum resistance metrology, quantum Hall effect


Kruskopf, M. and Elmquist, R. (2018), Epitaxial graphene for quantum resistance metrology, Metrologia (Accessed June 22, 2024)


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Created July 19, 2018, Updated October 12, 2021