Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Enthalpy of Solution and Kovats Retention Indices for Nitroaromatic Compounds on Stationary Phases Using Gas Chromatography



Jeffrey Caulfield, Thomas J. Bruno, Keith E. Miller


Worldwide terrorism has recently resulted in increased efforts to detect and identify explosive residues.Availability of experimentally determined thermochemical data for explosive compounds and their degradation products is limited, however. Gas chromatography was used to determine the enthalpy of solution, ΔsolH, for a series of nitroaromatic explosives and explosive degradation products including nitrobenzene, 2-nitrotoluene, 3-nitrotoluene, 4-nitrotoluene, 1,2-dinitrobenzene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene, 1,4-dinitrobenzene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, 2,6-dinitrotoluene, 3,4-dinitrotoluene, 3,5-dinitrotoluene, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene. Four polar stationary phases (by mass composition), namely, 80 % dimethyl + 20 % diphenyl polysiloxane, 14 % cyanopropylphenyl + 86 % dimethyl polysiloxane, 50 % phenyl + 50 % methylpolysiloxane, and 100 % polyethylene glycol, were evaluated with the 13 nitroaromatic compounds. Isothermal Kova¿ts retention indices are also reported for the nitroaromatics as well as the ΔsolH of several n-alkanes. Enthalpies reported herein were computed over a wide temperature range, thus net retention volumes are also tabulated to facilitate the specific needs of interested readers.
Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data


enthalpy of solution, explosives, Kovats retention index


Caulfield, J. , Bruno, T. and Miller, K. (2008), Enthalpy of Solution and Kovats Retention Indices for Nitroaromatic Compounds on Stationary Phases Using Gas Chromatography, Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, [online], (Accessed May 18, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created May 31, 2008, Updated October 12, 2021