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Engineering 3D Printed Scaffolds with Tunable Hydroxyapatite



Yoontae Kim, Eun Jin Lee, Anthony Kotula, Shozo Takagi, Laurence C. Chow, Styliani Alimperti


Bone grafting is a surgical procedure to bone repair due to trauma or diseases in the craniofacial and dental area. Current limitations of autogenous and allogeneic grafts are often associated with reduced host-graft integration due to geometrical confor-mations. Herein, we developed three-dimensional (3D) printed fine-tuned hydroxy-apatite (HA) biomimetic geometrical complex bone structures by using calcium phos-phate cement (CPC) bioink, which is composed of solid powder [tetracalcium phos-phate (TTCP), dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA)] and a liquid [Polyvinyl bu-tyral (PVB) dissolved in ethanol (EtOH)]. It was ejected through the high-resolution syringe nozzle (210 µm) at room temperature into three different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, and 0.5 mol/L) of the aqueous sodium phosphate dibasic (Na2 HPO4) bath that serves as a hardening accelerator for HA formation. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray dif-fraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated the dynamic HA formation in 0.01, 0.1, and 0.5 mol/L Na2HPO4. Under those conditions, the HA was formed in different rate, which tuned the mechanical properties, porosity and osteo-clast activity of those scaffolds. Overall, this method may pave the way to engineer 3D bone scaffolds with controlled HA composition and pre-defined properties, which will endorse bone resorption and graft-host integration in different anatomic locations.
Journal of Functional Biomaterials


3D printing, osteoclast, hydroxyapatite, calcium phosphate cement


Kim, Y. , Lee, E. , Kotula, A. , Takagi, S. , Chow, L. and Alimperti, S. (2022), Engineering 3D Printed Scaffolds with Tunable Hydroxyapatite, Journal of Functional Biomaterials, [online],, (Accessed April 14, 2024)
Created June 15, 2022, Updated March 6, 2023