Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Energy Performance Evaluation and Improvement of Unit-Manufacturing Processes: Injection Molding Case Study



Jatinder Madan, Mahesh Mani, Kevin W. Lyons, Jae H. Lee


In an effort to make more sustainable decisions, industry seeks reliable methods to assess and compare sustainability for manufacturing. Sustainability characterization is intended to provide such a reliable method to access and track sustainability information. As a step towards developing a standard reference for sustainability characterization of unit-manufacturing processes, in this paper, we focus on injection molding with energy as a sustainability indicator. This paper proposes a science-based guideline for energy: (i) prediction, (ii) benchmarking and performance evaluation, and (iii) improvement, for unit-manufacturing processes, which unlike the previous methods does not require a physical benchmark. We discuss in detail the steps of the proposed guideline for the injection molding process. The guideline considers different influencing factors such as part geometry, material-related physical and processing properties, and the manufacturing equipment information. The guideline is implemented by developing a user friendly system, and is demonstrated by a case study. We expect this work to contribute to the development of a standard reference methodology to help further sustainability in the manufacturing sector.
Journal of Cleaner Production


sustainable manufacturing, unit-manufacturing process, injection molding, energy, estimation, evaluation, improvement


Madan, J. , Mani, M. , Lyons, K. and Lee, J. (2014), Energy Performance Evaluation and Improvement of Unit-Manufacturing Processes: Injection Molding Case Study, Journal of Cleaner Production, [online], (Accessed June 20, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created September 28, 2014, Updated November 10, 2018