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Emerging Technology in Comparisons



Theodore V. Vorburger, Jun-Feng Song, Nicholas D. Petraco, Ryan Lilien


This chapter is designed to introduce the reader to emerging technologies relating to 3D surface topography measurement and comparative analysis. While the chapter includes several technical terms and a few equations, effort has been made to omit content that only would be of interest to a metrologist. We encourage readers to push through the entire chapter. Technology is developing quickly and we hope that the content will provide a roadmap and some important waypoints to this emerging discipline. Note that this chapter has been adapted from a longer and slightly more technical paper. The interested reader is pointed towards the original content (Vorburger, 2016).
Forensic Firearm Examination
Publisher Info
Elsevier, Amsterdam,


ballistics, breech face, bullet, cartridge case, exclusion, firearm, identification, individual characteristics, standards, surface, tool mark, topography


Vorburger, T. , Song, J. , Petraco, N. and Lilien, R. (2019), Emerging Technology in Comparisons, Forensic Firearm Examination, Elsevier, Amsterdam, , [online], (Accessed April 12, 2024)
Created March 1, 2019, Updated April 23, 2021