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Efficient Randomness Certification by Quantum Probability Estimation



Emanuel H. Knill, Yanbao Zhang, Honghao Fu


For practical applications of quantum randomness generation, it is important to produce a fixed block of fresh random bits with as few trials as possible. Consequently, protocols with high finite-data are preferred. In this work we develop a broadly applicable framework, for yielding such protocols with respect to quantum side information. and encompasses previous methods [Miller and Shi, SIAM Journal on Computing 46, 1304 (2017); Arnon-Friedman et al., Nature Communications 9, 459 (2018)]. Distinguished from other methods developed in literature, quantum probability estimation can adapt to changing experimental conditions, allows stopping the experiment as soon as the prespecified randomness goal is achieved, and can tolerate imperfect knowledge of the input distribution. Moreover, the randomness rate achieved at constant error is asymptotically optimal. We implement quantum probability estimation for device-independent randomness generation in the CHSH Bell-test configuration, and we show great improvements in finite-data efficiency, particularly at small Bell violations which are typical in current photonic loophole-free Bell tests.
Physical Review Research


Quantum randomness, Bell tests Publication medium: Physical Review X, (preprint archive) Bell tests, quantum randomness


Knill, E. , Zhang, Y. and Fu, H. (2020), Efficient Randomness Certification by Quantum Probability Estimation, Physical Review Research, [online], (Accessed May 14, 2021)
Created January 7, 2020, Updated May 19, 2020