Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Efficient quantification of experimental evidence against local realism



Yanbao Zhang, Scott C. Glancy, Emanuel H. Knill


To statistically quantify the evidence against local realism in an experiment, it is desirable to bound the probability according to local realism of a violation at least as high as that observed. We describe an efficient protocol for computing such a bound from any set of Bell inequalities for any number of parties, measurement settings, or outcomes. The bound depends on the choice and number of Bell inequalities, and generally, more inequalities make the bound asymptotically tighter. We find that even trivial Bell inequalities such as those derived from no-signaling conditions can improve the tightness of the bound.
Physical Review Letters


Bell inequalities, foundations of quantum mechanics, local realism Bell inequalities, local realism, foundations of quantum mechanics


Zhang, Y. , Glancy, S. and Knill, E. (2013), Efficient quantification of experimental evidence against local realism, Physical Review Letters (Accessed June 19, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created November 18, 2013, Updated February 19, 2017