Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Efficient Dithering Technique with Periodic Waveforms for RF Test and Characterization



Catherine A. Remley, Saeed Farsi, Bart Nauwelaers, Dominique Schreurs


A dithering technique based on ensemble averaging of waveforms is proposed. In the proposed method, instead of performing several measurements with different dithering additive noise, a single measurement of multiple periods of a sine-dithered periodic waveform is used. The measured waveform is then segmented and the segments are averaged to obtain a noise-reduced post-processed waveform. This technique provides improved efficiency in test and characterization applications where accuracy higher than that of the built-in data converters of the measurement equipment is required. Moreover, it is shown that by using large dithering signals in the proposed technique, one can reduce the non-ideal effects in real applications. The measured reduction in the adjacent channel power of a modulated signal emanating from an arbitrary waveform generator supports the effectiveness of the approach.
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques


Analog-to-digital converter (ADC), digital-to-analog converter (DAC), dithering, ensemble averaging, modulated-signal measurement, quantization noise, wireless system test.


Remley, C. , Farsi, S. , Nauwelaers, B. and Schreurs, D. (2013), Efficient Dithering Technique with Periodic Waveforms for RF Test and Characterization, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, [online], (Accessed May 24, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created October 7, 2013, Updated January 27, 2020