Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

The Effects of Laser Powder Bed Fusion Process Parameters on Material Hardness and Density for Nickel Alloy 625



Christopher U. Brown, Gregor Jacob, Antonio M. Possolo, Carlos R. Beauchamp, Max A. Peltz, Mark R. Stoudt, M A. Donmez


The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between mechanical and material properties (including density) of manufactured nickel super alloy (IN625) using a laser powder bed fusion process and three process parameters: laser power, hatch distance, and scan speed. Hardness of the manufactured blocks was measured as a representative of the mechanical properties. Density measurements were carried out using the pyncometry method. Three sets of blocks were manufactured using IN625 metal powder (nitrogen gas atomized) on a laser powder bed fusion machine (EOS M270). Different combinations of process parameters yielded different energy densities for each block for the three builds. The laser scan speed, laser power, hatch distance, and energy density all had statistically significant relationships with hardness. The average bulk density increased non-linearly with increasing values of energy density. A similar trend was in the hardness data. The results of this study served as a guide to determine the range of parameters yielding acceptable material properties for the investigation of process parameter sensitivities during a subsequent IN625 round robin study.
Advanced Manufacturing Series (NIST AMS) - 100-19
Report Number


Additive Manufacturing, Energy Density, Hardness, Hatch Distance, Laser Power, Scan Speed, Selective Laser Melting, Superalloys


Brown, C. , Jacob, G. , Possolo, A. , Beauchamp, C. , Peltz, M. , Stoudt, M. and Donmez, M. (2018), The Effects of Laser Powder Bed Fusion Process Parameters on Material Hardness and Density for Nickel Alloy 625, Advanced Manufacturing Series (NIST AMS), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed April 13, 2024)
Created August 21, 2018, Updated November 10, 2018